In my opinion, the biggest difference between those two photos (aside from a slight shift in curl pattern) is the one has a 'curly' cut, whereas the other is all cut to one length without any shape. Getting a cut that suits your hair can really make a huge difference in how it looks.

That being said, it is possible to get curl throughout and volume without forking out for a curly cut. I use plopping to help give me curls throughout. For volume on top, some people clip their to pull it away from the scalp until it's dry. The way you apply your product can also help - making sure you get product on all your hair is a good step in the right direction. I like the mysteryflavored method that was mentioned above. Doing things upside down, sideways, and any direction other than sitting/standing up can help as well.
3b/c. Fine, med-high porosity, normal elasticity. Hair loves oils in summer, protein in winter. Constantly battling the hard water monster.

Favourites:
CJ Curl Theory, Curl Rehab, Smoothing, Curl Fix, Daily Fix, CCCC, CIAB, CQ, SSCC, MC shampoo, Inecto Pure Coconut Oil, CP luscious curl creme (summer), DB Pumpkin Seed (summer), FD/MT, JCWDT, JCTS

American literature PhD student in the UK...