If you enter in any of your queries into the search bar you will find tons (and really, I mean TONS!) of threads and article dedicated to just these questions.
As far as type, go here: Hair Types on NaturallyCurly.com
Also, there is a thread dedicated to starting newbies off right: Start Here!
CG Birthday: 7/25/11
Dense, Fine in front Coarse in back, Low porosity
Low-Poo: SM Moisture Retention Shampoo
Rinse Out: Tresemme Naturals
Leave In: ^^^^
Stylers: AIF, Natural Silks Curly Gel