A. For the hairs with the bulbs attached-remember in the life cycle of hair, approximately 100 follicles a day go into inactivity and the attached hair will fall out, perhaps more if you have really dense hair, less if you have thinner density hair. These hairs often fall unnoticed from straight hair, but come out in the shower or when detangling with curly hair and so are more noticed when transitioning from wearing our hair straight to wearing it curly.
B. For the shorter hairs: This might be caused by dryness or breaking off split ends. Using the info in this link:
The Art of Dusting- Trimming Natural Hair | Curly Nikki | Natural Hair Styles and Natural Hair Care
may help you to figure out if you have a lot of split ends that could be breaking off. If it doesn't seem to be split ends, and even if it does-try a deep conditioning treatment to see if it helps.
If you do seem to have a lot of split ends, a trim might be in order.