Shed hair falls from the root (you can see their lovely white tips!) and this is completely normal. Every single strand on our heads is programmed to naturally shed out in due time, after it sheds a new strand begins to grow. This is natural and nothing to worry about.

Bald patches come from hair falling from its root too, but in an unprogrammed manner. This isn't normal, nor is it breakage (hair that splits somewhere down the strand, in pieces) and this would be an issue that would not relate to transitioning. One would probably have to see a doctor to find out why.

Breakage however can be prevented or limited. Hair doesn't have to break in pieces, not even transitioning hair. You will have to take some measures to care for it though because it is indeed sensitive at the point where the two textures meet.

In terms of breakage, what helps me the most is washing my hair in twists or braids (strength in numbers). Also learning how to separate the hair with my fingers (finger-detangling) to avoid ripping through tangles with a comb. You can comb it after you separate it if you like. Google some videos, show your mom you ARE capable handle your hair and you will!