here's a good link to understanding the hair basics:

menu is on left side, click on hair basics, faqs.....

there are other websites also, just not coming to mind right now.

as far as protein goes, if your hair texture is fine, then you need protein on a regular basis. if it's medium, some protein. coarse, very little protein.
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3a, some 2c & 3b, medium texture, porosity normal, low elasticity
washing/cowashing, conditioning, protein tx: [I] curl junkie products
leave in:cj conditioners and treatments as leave in
styling: cj aloe fix gel, cj pattern pusha, cj honey butta leave in, cj cccc, cj ciab.
sealants - jane carter nourish & shine